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Acronyms and Glossary


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ambiguity of a rotation

die Zwei-, Mehr- oder Vieldeutigkeit einer Drehung und somit Orientierung

l'ambiguïté d'une rotation


Automated Crystal lattice Orientation Microscopy

ACOM, die Automatische Kristall­Orientierungs-Mikroskopie

la cartographie automatisée de l'orientation des cristaux


Artificial Neural Network

KNN, das Künstliche Neuronale Netzwerk

réseau neuronal artificiel


anomalous absorption

die anomale Absorption

l‘absorption anomale


angular coordinates


les coordonnées angulaires


approximation condition

die Näherungs-Bedingung

la condition d'approximation


average value, mean value

der Mittelwert, gemittelter Wert

la valeur moyenne


area detector: 2D (image) detector

der Flächendetektor

détecteur de zone : détecteur 2D (image)


Body-Centered Cubic crystal lattice

krz, kiz, bcc: das raumzentrierte kubische Kristallgitter, das kubisch innen zentrierte Gitter

réseau cristallin cubique centré sur l'espace


binning: grouping of neighboring pixels to form "super pixels

das Binning: die Zusammenfassung von Bildpunkten zu „Super-Pixel“

binning: regroupement de pixels voisins pour former de "super pixels"


Backscatter Kikuchi Diffraction

BKD: die Rückstreu-Elektronen­beugung, Kikuchi-Beugung in Rückstreuung

BKD : la diffraction de Kikuchi en électrons rétrodiffusés


Backscatter Kikuchi diffraction Pattern

BKP: das Elektronen-Beugungsdiagramm in Rückstreuung

BKP: Diagramme de rétrodiffusion de Kikuchi = EBSP


Bloch wave

die Blochwelle

l'onde de Bloch


Bragg diffraction

die Braggsche Beugung

la diffraction de Bragg


In Bright Field imaging (BF), the central non-diffracted beam is selected for imaging. In Dark Field imaging (DF) it is a diffracted beam.

HF, die Hellfeldabbildung /

DF Dunkelfeldabbildung

l'imagerie en champ clair / sombre


BackScattered Electrons


les électrons rétrodiffusés


Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction (to produce Kossel-Möllenstedt patterns  and Zone Axis patterns)

die (Weitwinkel-)Beugung im konvergenten Bündel, CBED (Kossel-Möllenstedt und Zonenachsen-Diagramme)

CBED : la diffraction électronique à faisceau convergent


conformal (= angle preserving) projection, Lambert projection

die winkeltreue Projektion, Lambert-Projektion

la projection préservant les angles, projection de Lambert


Crystal Orientation Map, Crystal Orientation Map(ping)

die (Kristall-)Orientierungs-Kartographie

la cartographie de l'orientation des cristaux



der Computer, Rechner



contamination: The impact of electrons causes the formation of an unwanted hydrocarbon layer, which obscures the image and the diffraction pattern.

die Kontamination

la contamination


crystal structure

die Kristallstruktur

la structure du cristal la structure cristalline,


Debye-Scherrer ring

der Debye(-Scherrer)-Ring

l'anneau de Debye-Scherrer






diffraction contrast

der Beugungskontrast

contraste par diffraction


dynamical diffraction

die dynamische Beugung

la diffraction dynamique



die Zipfelbildung



Electron Back Scatter Diffraction: commercial term for ACOM with the SEM (not to confound with other backscatter electron diffraction techniques such as RHEED, LEED, ECP)

EBSD, die Elektronen­­-Rückstreu­­­-Beugung



Electron Back Scattered Pattern (= BKP)

das Elektronen-Rückstreu­diagramm

EBSP : Diagramme de rétrodiffusion de Kikuchi = BKP


Electron Channeling Pattern: Backscatter electron diffraction pattern produced with a pivoting beam

ECP, das Elektronen-Channeling-Diagramm

ECP : Diagramme de canalisation des électrons


Energy Dispersive X -ray Spectroscopy

Energiedispersive Röntgenspektroskopie, EDS, EDX



elastically scattered electrons

elastisch gestreute Elektronen

électrons diffusés élastiquement


electron gun

die Elektronenquelle

la source d'électrons


Equal area projection

die flächentreue Projektion, flächengleiche Projektion

la projection de surface réelle

(j1, F, j2)

Euler(ian) angles are used to represent the orientation of a crystal with respect to a Cartesian reference frame

die Euler-Winkel

les angles d'Euler 

Euler Map

COM using the Euler angles for color coding


Euler Map


Ewald sphere 

die Ewaldkugel

la boule d'Ewald


Excitation error

der Anregungsfehler

l'erreur d'excitation


Face-Centered Cubic crystal lattice

kfz, fcc: das kubisch flächenzentrierte Kristallgitter



fluorescent screen: see phosphor screen




Field Ion Beam: is a source of field-emitted ions, typically gallium or helium, that is used to build a stand-alone scanning ion microscope or as a companion device to a (dual-beam) SEM

FIB, der Feldionen-Strahl, -Sonde

FIB: La sonde ionique focalisée


Forward Scattered Electrons

FSE, vorwärtsgestreute Elektronen

FSE,  Les électrons diffusés vers l'avant

Friedel’s law

die Friedelsche Regel, das Friedelsches Gesetz

la règle de Friedel, le loi de Friedel


Gaussian distribution

die Gaussverteilung

la distribution gaussienne


a Grain Boundary is the interface between two crystals of the same composition and crystal structure, but of different orientation.

KG, die Korngrenze

Le joint de grains 


Geometrically Necessary Dislocations

GND, geometrisch notwendige Versetzungen

GND, Les dislocations géométriquement nécessaires


Hexagonal Close-Packed crystal lattice

hdp, hcp: die hexagonal dichteste Kugelpackung



Hough Transform(ation), an image processing and analysis routine used to locate straight lines in a binary image. HT is a special case of RT.

die Hough-Transformation

la transformation de Hough


inelastically scattered electrons

inelastisch (auch: unelastisch) gestreute Elektronen

électrons diffusés inélastiquement


High Order Laue Zone

HOLZ, die Laue-Zone höherer Ordnung

HOLZ, la zone de Laue d'ordre élevé


information depth : The depth of the layer below the sample surface from which the information is collected.

die Informationstiefe, IT

la profondeur de l'information


The inverse pole figure IPF represents the density distribution of crystallographic directions <uvw> parallel to a sample direction in the standard triangle of stereographic projection.

IPF, die inverse Polfigur

IPF,  la figure de pôles inverse 


Image Quality (see PQ)

IQ, entspricht ungefähr der PQ

IQ, la qualité d'image, comparable à PQ

Indexing Quality: a measure of the angular deviations between detected and recalculated band positions

ein Zuverlässigkeitswert für die Indizierung

une valeur de fiabilité de l'indexation




le clavier


kinematical diffraction

die kinematische Beugung

la diffraction cinématique


Kikuchi band

das Kikuchi-Band

la bande de Kikuchi 


Kikuchi pattern

das Kikuchi-Diagramm

le diagramme de Kikuchi


camera length: distance from the beam spot on the specimen to the pattern center on the phosphor screen

die Beugungslänge L

la distance L de diffraction


Laue pattern

das Laue-Diagramm

le diagramme de Laue


Lankford parameter, strain ratio

der r-Wert, das Dehnungsverhältnis

le paramètre de Lankford, rapport de déformation


Low Energy Electron Diffraction: Backscatter electron diffraction with a primary beam of usually less than 5 keV at normal incidence on a bulk crystal




materialography is the study of the physical structure and components of solids, by using microscopy and methods of sample preparation. Metallography is focused on metals.

die Materialografie


Miller Map

COM using the Miller Indices of two reference directions for color coding

die Miller-Kartographie

la cartographie de Miller



das Gefüge



Micro Beam electron Diffraction: Electron diffraction in transmission or backscattering mode with a fine-focused beam spot

die Feinstrahl-Elektronenbeugung

la diffraction électronique à faisceau fin


MisOrientation Distribution Function

die MODF, MOVF: die Missorientierungs-Verteilungsfunktion



nano-beam diffraction

die Feinststrahl-Beugung

la diffraction par nanofaisceaux


normalization of data

das Normieren von Daten

la normalisation des données


Orientation Correlation Function

die Orientierungs-Korrelations-Funktion



Orientation Density Function, Orientation Distribution Function 

(definition:  dV(g)/V = f(g) dg )

die ODF, OVF: die Orientierungs-Dichtefunktion, Orientierungs-Verteilungs­funktion

FDO : la Fonction de Densité d'Orientation f(g)


OIMTM is a registered trademark for an EBSD system




Orientation Mapping, Orientation Microscopy

OM (= ACOM), die Orientierungs-Mikroskopie, Orientierungs-Kartographie



Pendel loesung: In two-beam dynamical diffraction the energy is periodically swinging like a "pendulum" from one beam to the other at path lengths of half the extinction distance. Thus, the intensity of the diffracted wave is not proportional to the scattering amplitude of the reflection, but periodically changes with local specimen thickness.

die Pendellösung



pixelated detector: digital 2D image detector

der Pixeldetektor: digitaler 2D-Bilddetektor

détecteur pixellisé : détecteur numérique d'images 2D


phosphor screen, fluorescent screen emits light under the impact of electrons and thus makes the spatial image of electron density visible.

der Leuchtschirm

L’écran phosphorent, l’écran fluorescent


(direct, standard) Pole Figure : A pole figure hkl is the density of the poles {hkl} , often graphically represented  in stereographic or in Lambert projection.

die (normale) Polfigur, PF

PF,  la figure de pôles (directe)

PF map

PF constructed by marking the individual grain orientations (in color) on the reference sphere or on the Wulff's net, i.e. the standard projection of the reference sphere.

Pdie olfigur-Kartographie, Richtungs-Kartographie

la cartographie de la figure du pôle, la cartographie directionnelle


A Phase Boundary is the interface between two crystals of different crystal structure

die Phasengrenze

Le Joint de phases 


point detector: 1D detector

der Punktdetektor, 1D-Detektor



Pattern Quality: a measure of the crispness of the BKP and an indication of the perfectness of the diffracting crystal volume

PQ, die Patttern Quality



Preferred orientations, ideal orientations

die Vorzugsorientierungen, Ideallagen

les orientations préférées, les positions idéales


Radon Transform(ation): an image processing and analysis routine used to quantify gray-tone features in an image; in EBSD the tool to locate positions of Kikuchi bands in the BKP

RT, die Radon-Transformation

la transformation de Radon


Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction = BKD, in particular at steep to grazing beam incidence

die (Hochenergie-)Reflexions-Elektronenbeugung, streifende Elektronenbeugung

RHEED , La diffraction à incidence presque rasante du faisceau primaire

Rodrigues map

COM using the Rodrigues vector as parameters for color coding

die Rodrigues-Kartographie

Rodrigues Map


Selected Area electron Diffraction: Electron diffraction in the TEM using a selector aperture to limit the sampled area

die Feinbereichs-Elektronenbeugung, SAD

SAD,  La diffraction en faisceau parallèle sur une zone sélectionnée


Secondary Electrons, by definition have an energy < 50 eV

die Sekundärelektronen, SE

les électrons secondaires


Skeleton line

die Skelett-Linie



Scanning Electron Microscope / Microscopy

das REM, das Raster-Elektronen-Mikroskop(ie)

MEB : Microscope électronique à balayage

S value

reciprocal value of the fraction of the coincident lattice sites of two superimposed crystal lattices

der S Wert

la valeur de S


stereology is the science that relates three-dimensional structure to two-dimensional cross sections of materials.

die Stereologie

la stéréologie


Stereographic projection (an angle preserving projection)

die Stereographische Projektion (winkeltreu)



t-EBSD, t-EFSD : a TKD system on thin samples transparent to electrons in the SEM




Transmission Electron Microscope / Microscopy

das TEM, das Transmissions- / Durchstrahlungs-Elektronen-Mikroskop, die Durchstrahlungs-Mikroskopie

MET : Microscope électronique à transmission


(crystallographic) texture: The statistics of the preferential orientations of the grains in a specimen, the random distribution is usually included.

die (kristallographische, Kristall-) Textur

La texture (cristallographique)


Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction / Pattern


die Transmissions-Kikuchi-Beugung / das Transmissions-Diagramm

TKD / TKP : La diffraction de Kikuchi en transmission


A twin(-crystal) or macle is an oriented arrangement of several identical crystals, which are connected by a point group symmetry operation.

der Zwilling

la macle 


umweg anregung: Two or more diffractions excite a kinematically forbidden reflection due to a screw axis or a glide plane.

die Umweganregung

umweganregung, L'excitation „umweg“


Wehnelt grid

der Wehneltzylinder

le cylindre de Wehnelt, l'électrode de Wehnel


X-Ray Diffraction

die Röntgenbeugung, XRD

la diffraction de rayons X


X-Ray Residual Stress Analysis

die röntgenographische Eigenspannungs-Analyse

l'analyse des contraintes résiduelles par rayons X


X-Ray Scanning Apparatus

RRA, die Röntgen-Raster-Apparatur

l'appareil de balayage à rayons X


Young fringes: Diffraction fringes in the double slit experiment

die Youngschen Beugungsstreifen

les lignes de diffraction de Young


Young’s modulus

der Elastizitätsmodul, der E-Modul

le module d'élasticité E,

le module de Young


zone axis: A crystallographic direction with high atomic occupancy density

die Zonenachse

l’axe de zone